Evolution des transports en commun urbains en Alsace et en Lorraine de 1820 à nos jours

Abstract : In the 19th C, the towns in Alsace and Lorraine grew rapidly, as elsewhere in Europe, vwith the exception of those with a military role whose expansion was limited by agreement. Given the increase in distance travelled, new forms of transport were developed. The construction of railways increased the need for complementary urban transport. Technological developments enabled these new systems to carry more people, faster, over a wider area. Given the new border between Germany and France, Alsace and Moselle urban transport systems were subject to German law, and those in Epinal, Longwy and nancy to French law. The first World War disrupted local tranport systems and put an end to their expansion. Economic difficulties and the increase in the use of motorcars inhibited their return to previous operating levels. The systems in areas annexed by France were obliged to apply French law. All transport systems had to adapt until a new equilibrium was reached. This was disrupted again by WWII. At the end of WW II the aera was in chaos with the result that urban transport systems could no longer meet the demand. Under public pressure, local councillors gave high priority to renewing local transport systems, with the result that they expanded again. In the 1960s, their use declined, but in the 1970s they were again politically desirable. By the 1980s, under pressure from the ecologists, the general public accepted the need to reduce motor traffic in urban areas. The 2000s mark the beginning of a new era, with intermodal public transport systems being built with their own routes.
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Pierre Bastien. Evolution des transports en commun urbains en Alsace et en Lorraine de 1820 à nos jours. Economies et finances. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2003. Français. ⟨NNT : 2003METZ020L⟩. ⟨tel-01775896⟩

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