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Bioévaluation de la contamination organique des sols : recherche chez des rats sentinelles et mise au point d'un bioessai avec le rat de laboratoire

Abstract : In this experimental study, we have studied the bioavailability of organic pollutants such as PAH or PCB which are known inducers of cytochrome P-450 1A1 and 2B, by measuring ethoxy-, pentoxy- and benzoxy-resorufin O-dealkylase activities (EROD, PROD and BROD, respectively) in hepatic and pulmonary microsomal fractions from wild rats (Rattus norvegicus) caught on the polluted site of Replonges. Results show the expected induction of hepatic EROD activity, in parallel with a strong increase in pulmonary EROD activity. In such in situ studies which have been used by other authors, the level of exposure is not characterized. Thus, we have developed a methodology where small mammals are exposed to polluted soils by natural routes in controlled laboratory conditions. Laboratory or wild rats were maintained on a litter of soil during 88 +- 2 heures. The results show that with PAH- and/or PCB-polluted soils, the induction of pulmonary EROD activity is higher and more long-lasting than hepatic EROD activity (9 to 78-fold and 3 to 29-fold, respectively). In the same conditions, wild rats are less responsive. With this protocol, it is possible to study dose-response relationships by diluting polluted soil with unpolluted soil or sand. Hepatic EROD, PROD and BROD activities, pulmonary EROD activities, and hepatic and pulmonary PCB burdens are significatively correlated to the concentration of polluted soil in the litter. Preliminary results show that PAH polluted soils induce the formation of DNA adducts in lung and liver. No modification of antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidases) was detected
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Marie-Odile Fouchécourt. Bioévaluation de la contamination organique des sols : recherche chez des rats sentinelles et mise au point d'un bioessai avec le rat de laboratoire. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996METZ021S⟩. ⟨tel-01777132⟩

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