Impact des produits phytosanitaires sur la diversité spécifique et fonctionnelle de la microflore du sol : ecas du dinitro-o-cresol

Abstract : The impact of herbicides on the soil microflora was studied through the effect of a model molecule : the DNOC. We first considered the influence of the DNOC on the growth of pure strains of microorganisms selected in 3 microbial groups. Two of the three were defined by their taxonomic position (Rhizobia and Pseudomonas), the third by its functional ability to degrade 2.4-D. This approach showed that Rhizobia were sensitive, pseudomonas were resistant and 2.4-D degraders had very different responses to DNOC. This suggests that, in the soil, 2.4-D degraders may be exposed to important modifications in their diversity with functional consequences. But, this approach cannot reflect what really happens in the soil where physico-chemical and biological protections probably limit the impact of pollutants. That is the reason why, in a second time, we studied the DNOC impact on the structure of two subsets of the soil microbial community : bacteria growing on a non-selective medium and on a medium with 2.4-D as the main carbon and energy source. We can clearly see that DNOC has destructurating effects on both groups : a diminution of the number of species and a selection of gram negative bacteria. The only difference is in the velocity of the answer which occurs as soon as 7 days for the "total population" and 14 days for the "2.4-D degraders". Moreover, diversity indices calculated on both morphologic and genetic criteria vary similarly for both populations. We showed a long term based but irreversible convergence of the evolution of control and treated soil samples towards a diminution of the number of microbial species. The DNOC effect ont the metabolic diversity of the total population and on 2.4-D degraders was then studied. We studied showed that DNOC presence in the soil could modify the metabolic signature of a microbial community defined by the ability to degrade different substrates. The effect is such, that we could consider it as a possible indicator of the ecotoxicological impact of toxic molecules. Functional changes due to the presence of a biocidaal molecule were investigated through its effect on the 2.4-D degradation in micro-samples. DNOC inhibits the degradation even at low doses where a stepwise effect is observed. This work demonstrates that the soil microbial population reacts to the presence of a chemical pollutant such as the DNOC by a functional and specific adaptation
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Christine Lors. Impact des produits phytosanitaires sur la diversité spécifique et fonctionnelle de la microflore du sol : ecas du dinitro-o-cresol. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1997. Français. ⟨NNT : 1997METZ009S⟩. ⟨tel-01777196⟩

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