Qualité des fumées d'incinération de déchets evaluée par mesure de la cytotoxicité sur cellules de type macrophagique

Abstract : Our work consists in developing a global bio-assay to evaluate on-line waste incineration stack gas quality. Total stack gases (gas, aerosols, particles) are sampled from the inside of the stack and flow down into an exposure chamber. Alveolar macrophage-like cells from the THP-1 monocyte strain are prepared in culture dishes that allow their contact with an atmosphere. They are maintain in close contact with incineration stack gases in the exposure chamber providing to the cell culture an humidified 37°C-regulated atmosphere, and react to the global stack gas quality. Using the comparison of exposed cells to blank cells kept in clean air, one can attribute a cytotoxicity rate to the gases. Acolorimetric method gives cell viability : yellow tetrazolium MTT salt solution is reduced into a formazan blue salt by only cells. The lower the rate, the better the quality of the stack gases. Our work shows that : testing the bio-assay on simple gases is essential in order its sensitivity to polluants which may be present in the atmosphere ; the cell response in well correlated with NO2, SO2 or HCl concentration ; cells cultured on membranes on which stack gas dusts were collected show high cytotoxicity rates ; hence the stack gas sampling must preserve dusts transported by the gases from the source tested to the reactive cells ; the cytotoxicity index is related to NO, CO, SO2 and HCl concentrations measured in stack gases, even weakly ; in addition, the index seems to be also sensitive to micropollutants which are not measured here. This global bio-assay may be a good complement to the routine controls performed on stack gases, for it can detect pollutants that physical and chemical controls does even not measure
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Anne Gery. Qualité des fumées d'incinération de déchets evaluée par mesure de la cytotoxicité sur cellules de type macrophagique. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1997. Français. ⟨NNT : 1997METZ038S⟩. ⟨tel-01777221⟩

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