Approche thermomécanique de l’interface meule/pièce/lubrifiant lors de la rectification de dentures d'engrenage en acier nitruré : impacts sur l’intégrité du matériau rectifié

Abstract : The grinding process is very useful to obtain a very precise surface finish. It is generally used on very hard materials which cannot be machined by other conventional machining processes. However grinding involves very complex material removal mechanisms and most of the time is difficult to set up. During the grinding process, the main grinding energy is converted into heat between chip, lubricant, wheel and workpiece. Temperature and heat flux in the grinding zone depend on the contact geometry, on the material, on the wheel (grit size, geometry, porosity, wear), on the dressing, on the grinding parameters (depth of cut, workpiece speed, wheel speed) and on lubrication conditions. High temperatures result in thermal damage such as metallurgical changes, stress gradients, and changes in workpiece dimensions. In general terms, because of this process, surface integrity may be seriously damaged. Grinding parameters have to guarantee the workpiece quality and have to respond to the productivity improvement in machining and cutting industry. The target of this thesis was the mechanical and thermal study of the grinding zone between workpiece, wheel and lubricant in order to reduce the burn risk during the grinding of a nitrided steel gear. The purpose was also to define possible transformations associated to this damage. To achieve it, we developed several research topics. We proposed an experimentally verified heat flux model, usable to predict accurately the nitrided steel temperature in the lubricated grinding zone. This model is based on an inverse method and temperature measurements with a workpiece/foil thermocouple. We made a grinding wheel comparative study in order to determine the wheel capable, for a given workpiece roughness, of limiting the risk of burn. To perform this study, we focused, for each wheel, on the maximum allowable depth of cut before burning. This comparative study was led both in laboratory and industrial conditions. We also studied the influence of thermal damages in grinding by studying and qualifying the nitrided steel microstructure. The use of classical measurement techniques such as: hardness, SEM, EBSD and DRX or original and underused techniques such as Barkhausen noise or Raman spectroscopy permitted to define changes in the burned grinded materials. Between the two states of materials (burned and no burned), we observed differences in hardness, grain size and ferrous oxides creation. At last, we made a detailed study on the lubrication efficiency during grinding of the nitrided steel. For this purpose we changed independently fluid flow and jet speed in outlet nozzle. Then we observed the modifications this could cause on the temperature distribution in the grinding zone and on the workpiece heat partition ratio
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Submitted on : Thursday, November 15, 2018 - 9:52:31 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01923209, version 1

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Bruno Lavisse. Approche thermomécanique de l’interface meule/pièce/lubrifiant lors de la rectification de dentures d'engrenage en acier nitruré : impacts sur l’intégrité du matériau rectifié. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0190⟩. ⟨tel-01923209⟩

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