Effets de différents modèles de stress sur le développement lymphocytaire

Abstract : Spaceflight is a source of various stresses leading to the weakening of the immune system. The efficiency of this system relies, notably, on the diversity of antigen receptor repertoires present on B (BCR) and T (TCR) cells, allowing the recognition of a vast array of antigens. During this thesis, I studied the diversity of antigen receptors in three different animal models: the amphibian Pleurodeles waltl, the murine anti‐orthostatic suspension model (simulated microgravity) and the CUMS (for "Chronic Unpredictable Mild Socio‐environmental stressors") murine model involving exposure to chronic social and environmental stressors similar to those encountered during spaceflights. Analyses of P. waltl IgM and IgY heavy chain repertoires have shown that they are highly diverse, making this species a nice animal model for studying the effects of spaceflight on the humoral immune system. We have also shown that 21 days of anti‐orthostatic suspension decrease murine B lymphopoiesis and moderately affect IgM heavy chain repertoire diversity. These results were compared with those obtained with old mice to determine if anti‐orthostatic suspension induces an accelerated aging of the immune system. Although we noted interesting similarities between these two groups of mice, we found that the effect of aging on IgM repertoire is stronger than that of the anti‐orthostatic suspension, suggesting that anti‐orthostatic duration should be extended to increase the effects of this model on antibody repertoire. Finally, regarding the CUMS model, we have shown that, when applied during gestation it does not affect T lymphopoiesis in newborn mice but affects 25% of their TCRβ heavy chain repertoire. These results suggest that low‐intensity chronic socio‐environmental stressors may alter antigen recognition capabilities of the host
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Coralie Fonte. Effets de différents modèles de stress sur le développement lymphocytaire. Immunologie. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0185⟩. ⟨tel-01980748⟩

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