Étude de la dispersion de nanoparticules dans le sillage d’obstacles : cas d’un véhicule automobile

Abstract : In this thesis, the study of the interactions between ultrafine particles emitted by the exhaust pipes and the wake flow generated by the emitting vehicle was carried out mainly using a numerical approach. An experimental campaign was conducted for validation purpose. The goal of the thesis is to understand the impact of exhaust particles on the surrounding environment on both the pedestrian and the passengers of the following vehicles. For this purpose, the fluid flow was resolved with an Eulerian type URANS model (Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes) combined to the Lagrangian approach for the nanoparticles trajectories calculation. This thesis is conducted simultaneously with a collaborative project funded by ADEME (CAPTIHV) whose purpose is to assess the air quality of automotive car cabins, and particulate infiltration from the surrounding traffic in particular of ultrafine particles. The study of the dispersion of fine particles in turbulent flows requires a fine analysis of the turbulent structures that develop in such flows. Our numerical study therefore consisted, first, in analyzing this dispersion in the case of a classic wake flow downstream of a cylinder. This enabled us to characterize the interaction of solid carbon nanoparticles with vortical structures evaluating at the same time the impact of turbulence and Brownian diffusion. This allowed determining the influence of the main mechanisms influencing nanoparticles dispersion. In a second step, we replaced the cylinder configuration by a simplified geometry of a motor vehicle, Ahmed body configuration. Therefore, simulations with and without of particles presence have been conducted and have allowed to highlight the swirls structures and to characterize the particles dispersion through particle concentration profiles and the particles dispersion coefficients. The results of these simulations allowed us determining the important mechanisms / forces that can influence the dispersion of such particles in the wake of a ground vehicle; this facilitated the implementation and analysis of relatively more complex simulations of the aerodynamics of the square back Ahmed body in the presence of nanoparticles simulating soot from the exhaust gases. The interactions of ultrafine particles with vortical structures appearing in the wake of vehicles were evaluated from concentration profiles and transverse dispersion coefficients. The final step was a wind tunnel experimental campaign that allowed us to characterize the average and turbulent velocity fields as well as the particle concentration fields downstream of the vehicle to validate the numerical results
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 21, 2019 - 4:07:11 PM
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Namamoudou Sidiki Keita. Étude de la dispersion de nanoparticules dans le sillage d’obstacles : cas d’un véhicule automobile. Physique Générale [physics.gen-ph]. Université de Lorraine; Université des sciences, des techniques et des technologies de Bamako (Mali), 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0205⟩. ⟨tel-02075785⟩

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