Étude de la sensibilité du hêtre lorrain à un événement climatique extrême. Quels sont les rôles des métabolismes carboné et azoté dans la mort des arbres ?

Abstract : An increase in forest dieback has been observed in recent decades and the question of how trees will react to these brutal changes is raised by the scientific community but not yet resolved. The multiplicity of studies made it possible to draw several hypotheses on the functional mechanisms put into action during a death event leading to mortality, two of which emerge: a dysfunction of the hydraulic system or a depletion of carbon reserves. Nevertheless, these assumptions turned out to be neither exclusive nor exhaustive. Other hypotheses were then proposed in addition to existing ones, in particular the contribution of nitrogen metabolism during a mortality event. Numerous observations point to a potential risk to the ecological status of beech in the face of these global climate changes, in particular a decrease in the availability of soil nitrogen and an increase in drought events. The work in this thesis has therefore sought to evaluate the contribution of nitrogen and carbon metabolisms to dysfunctions observed during an episode of dieback leading to mortality. During the 3 years of the project, we studied how the nitrogen and carbon metabolism could be impacted by successive annual defoliation or a long and intense drought. Our study has shown the internal tree nitrogen cycle is conserved with a strong allocation of nitrogen to the leaf compartment in the spring, its conservation in the foliage during the growing season and an efficient recycling of the leaf nitrogen to the perennial organs during nitrogen winter remobilization. We have been able to estimate that this recycled nitrogen in the fall contributes significantly to the setting up of the new leaf compartment the following spring, even in the face of significant constraints. We have also been able to show that the quantity of carbon reserves is maintained in the face of defoliation and, at least initially, in the face of drought. Nevertheless, the proportional demand for osmotic requirements in the face of a long and intense drought has led to a decrease in the amount of carbon reserves. When the tree dies, the carbon reserves are greatly reduced, but not until exhaustion, contrary to the theory. Finally, the mortality rate in our experiment was quite low indicating the resistance of the Lorraine beech to extreme constraints such as successive defoliation or a long and intense drought. Our results emphasize the resistance character of the beech against a constraint via internal metabolism adjustments but this resistance could be lost if the stress is longer and more recurrent. These elements can question the possible maintenance of beech in the face of climate change
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Pierre-Antoine Chuste. Étude de la sensibilité du hêtre lorrain à un événement climatique extrême. Quels sont les rôles des métabolismes carboné et azoté dans la mort des arbres ?. Biologie végétale. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0255⟩. ⟨tel-02104092⟩

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