Installation d’un nouveau dispositif de photoémission résolue en angle et en spin, et étude des propriétés électroniques de matériaux artificiels aux propriétés remarquables

Abstract : In this work, we highlight the relevance of photoemission spectroscopy for investigating the electronic properties of materials. In the first part, we tackle the development and the test phase of a new experimental setup which is composed of a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and a spin and angle resolved photoemission (SR-ARPES) chambers, connected to the tube at the Institut Jean Lamour. The high performances of this new setup are evaluated. On one hand by measuring well known system from the litterature (Shockley state at the Au(111) surface) and on the other hand by studying materials with novel properties (topological insulators, molecular Kondo effect …). Energy resolution is better than 2 meV for UV photoemission (UPS) and 300 meV for X-ray photoemission (XPS). We also have an angular resolution better than 0.2° and a lowest sample temperature of 8.7 K. Finally, first SR-ARPES measurements demonstrate the ability of this new installation to measure finest details of the spin polarized band structure. In short, this new setup is fully operationnal. The second part is dedicated to the study of a two dimensionnal (2D) ultra thin silicon oxide at the surface of a cristalline Ru(0001) substrate. Both growth and electronic properties are studied by high resolution XPS and ARPES. We confirm the structural model accepted for the system in the litterature for the monolayer case. In particular we confirm the existence of two inequivalent Si-O-Ru bonds with unprecedented high resolution XPS measurements on the O1s core level. In addition, our ARPES measurements highlight new dispersives states with 2D character which are unambiguously attributed to this oxide. While the monolayer is strongly connected to the ruthenium substrate (covalent bonds), the bilayer is disconnected from this latter one (van der Waals). Our work confirms the existence of such a transition with unambiguous signatures both in XPS and ARPES, in particular with the breaking of Si-O-Ru bonds. We also demonstrate the robustness of this system which, after being cristallised, can go to atmosphere without fundamental modification of his electronic properties. That gives a lot of potential applications to this 2D cristalline oxide, which could play in the futur the role of a wide band gap insulator in 2D heterostructures. In the last part, we focus on the theoretical aspects of photoemission. While band structure is periodic in the reciprocal space, it is not the case of photoemission intensity which can depend on a lot of parameters. We are motivated by the fact that these considerations are generally not well understood by experimentalists. Here, we present a simple model recently proposed in the three step approach of the photoemission process. With this model we can evaluate the one-electron matrix elements which play a key role to understand the variations of spectral weight in photoemission. In this approach, one-electron matrix elements are proportionnal to both Fourier transform of the Wannier state of the system and to a polarization term. We apply this model to « real » systems, in particular to graphene and to circular dichroism measurements on Cu(111) sample, highlighting sucess and limitations of this model.
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Geoffroy Kremer. Installation d’un nouveau dispositif de photoémission résolue en angle et en spin, et étude des propriétés électroniques de matériaux artificiels aux propriétés remarquables. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018LORR0293⟩. ⟨tel-02111626⟩

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