Covalent funtionalization of carbon nanomaterials for bioelectrochemical applications

Abstract : Bioelectrochemical devices often use the NADH co-factor (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) as a biomolecule involved in oxidation-reduction reactions with enzymes of high biochemical interest, such as glucose oxidases or dehydrogenases. It is necessary to use new electrode materials to reduce the over-potentials required for electron transfer with the NADH/NAD+ system and avoid adsorption of the reaction products to the electrode surface (biofouling). Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a conductive material with a large specific surface area that seems promising for modifying the surface of electrodes. This thesis work consisted in developing new methods for covalent grafting of electro-active functional groups with respect to the NADH/NAD+ system by controlling the various stages of the process with a particularly advanced physico-chemical analysis protocol involving Raman scattering spectroscopy, infrared absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and thermogravimetric and volumetric adsorption analyses. We have developed a process based on a first step of oxidation of the CNTs by microwave assistance in diluted acid media. This makes it possible to transform existing defects in the wall of the nanotubes (carbon atoms in sp3 hybridization) into carboxylic acid functions, which will be used in the subsequent steps of the process for covalent grafting of electro-active groups. Thus, the structural integrity of the CNTs, and therefore their excellent electronic and mechanical properties, are preserved. The success of this approach is fully demonstrated in this work both by using purified single-walled nanotubes and multi-walled nanotubes. A clear electrocatalytic effect is obtained with the functional groups derived from ferrocene. The crucial role of the nature of the spacer arm connecting the electro-active units to the wall of the CNTs is also shown. This work made it possible to develop a general method for covalent grafting of CNTs and its step-by-step control. Finally, we show in perspective of this work that it is possible to directly graft the NAD+ molecule onto the surface of the CNTs.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 16, 2019 - 10:31:36 AM
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Naoual Allali. Covalent funtionalization of carbon nanomaterials for bioelectrochemical applications. Chemical Sciences. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0021⟩. ⟨tel-02130875⟩

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