Le portrait du défunt dans les cimetières lorrains de 1804 à nos jours

Abstract : From the imperial law of 23 Prairial year XII (June 12, 1804) which imposes the burial obligation for all in the cemetery, the sculpture puts itself at the service of the portrait of the deceased, in this very special space which is at the same time of the private frame and the public setting. Heir to a tradition hitherto booked with noble and to the king, the funerary portrait is displayed in an iconography which oscillates between symbolic system and realism of the physical features; the soldier is honored as hero while the priest is venerated by the parishioners. Falling under the fashion of the “statuomanie galopante” years 1880, the Lorraine cemeteries join the public will to honour its Great men, at one time when the “Small Fatherland”, Lorraine, meets the “Great Fatherland”, France, where known artists and sometimes less known put their know-how and their notoriety at the service of portraits the notable ones. The funerary portrait knows its golden age then. Whereas the modern cemetery is built little by little thanks to its compartmental organization, the families test the imperative need very quickly to materialize, on these family concessions, the memory of the features of their late and the carved portrait give of it them the opportunity and here it is which leaves the intimacy of the living rooms to be installed either on the family stele of the tomb. Thus the tearful husband remembers the face his dear wife, that ploughed up parents can comfort themselves to have lost a little angel in him substituent another face, rather idealized, or best the figure of another angel, more solid because out of marble and more protective. Little by little, the cemetery is avoided of people of statues which some professional reasons come to supplement, rare however. The personalization of the tomb remains however very discrete, the pain contained. The funerary sculpture, and the portrait in particular, are put at the service of the expression of subsidiary or marital feelings, hitherto booked with the intimacy, but translate an elitism which the legislation 23 Prairial An XII did not wish. For the period 1880-1930, the silent partners of the funerary portraits profit from a widened offer of products in particular thanks to rise of the photography and with the process of vitrification. Without competing with the carved portrait carried mainly by the bronze medallion and the sculpture in the round, the photographic stained glass makes it possible to promote the memory of late in a luxurious house, where, for the first time, the presence of the color makes animate these faces and makes them almost alive. But, it is a luxury which few families can offer. Then, the photographic medallion on enamelled plate, more modest, makes it possible to less fortunate customers to reach the funerary portrait with the cemetery. After 1930, whereas vault and stained glass disappear from the alleys of the cemetery, the medallion can definitively take seat on the burials. Very quickly, these is a assured success which is not contradicted, still today. The period of 1940 to our days is by far richest in funerary portraits and this thanks to techniques controlled well, that of photography on porcelain medallion and that of mechanical or artistic engraving, grace also to new supports which are the funerary plates, the ballot boxes, vases. And it is not rare that a family resorts to different techniques for each one of her late. The way of presenting the late one also evolved; the photographic model of studio gives way to a model presented “to the naturalness”, i.e. resulting from the family photographic album and new symbols show the late one under more personal aspects. From now on, the funerary portrait of late with the cemetery is not only any more one face but it is also a sportsman, a hunter, a motorcyclist, a professional, in love with the animals, an amateur of game of bowls.
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Theses
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/ulprive/DDOC_T_2017_0317_BOLLE_Diff.pdf ; http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/ulprive/DDOC_T_2017_0317_BOLLE_Vol2_Diff.pdf ; http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/ulprive/DDOC_T_2017_0317_BOLLE_Annexes_Diff.pdf
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 11, 2019 - 3:52:57 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 12, 2019 - 1:24:53 AM

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Françoise Bolle-Anotta. Le portrait du défunt dans les cimetières lorrains de 1804 à nos jours. Art et histoire de l'art. Université de Lorraine, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017LORR0317⟩. ⟨tel-02152598⟩

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