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Le vocabulaire médical au XVIe siècle d'après les oeuvres d'Ambroise Paré

Abstract : aIn this study we intend to point out a certain number of aspects of french medical terminology in the sixteenth century, as seen in the writings of ambroise pare. The 28 books of the complete works, published in 1585 by j.buon (paris) are a particularly fertile field for observation. Before beginning the lexical study, we show how the linguistic problems are bound to the organization of the medical world, which is composed of three professional groups, physicians, surgeons and barbers, each with his own specialty, some latin-speaking, others french-speaking. Next we show how the re-birth of medical studies is closely connected to the return to latin and greek roots and how the works of a.pare are profoundly influenced by the nedical theories of galen. The basis of the lexical study comprises txo glossaries of medical terms or meanings extracted from the works of pare. The first glossary (about 2100 entries) includes the medical vocabulary available in the language before the sixteenth century; the second one (about 1250 entries) includes the medical words or meanings which appear during the sixteenth century. The recording of this information allowed us to describe the vocabulary of ambroise pare (chapter 2) : the contibution from arabic, from exotic languages and especially from latin and greek, the mechanisms of transfer and its integration; adaptation of scholarly patterns of derivation; modes of composition ; the building of complex words. Finally (chapter 3), we have handled semantic problems through the study of synonymy in its different functions. This is a fundamental phenomenon in the evolution and the re-organization of the lexicon, which appears not only in pare's works but also in the medical works of the french translators or authors at that time. We conclude with the assertion that a scholarly language tends to dominate, in spite of an existing terminology and modes of word-building in the vernacular. The reason for this is most likely that surgeons worked under physicians, who gave their instructions in latin
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Submitted on : Monday, October 21, 2019 - 3:00:17 PM
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Edmonde Papin. Le vocabulaire médical au XVIe siècle d'après les oeuvres d'Ambroise Paré. Littératures. Université Nancy 2, 1987. Français. ⟨NNT : 1987NAN21025⟩. ⟨tel-02321785⟩



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