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Étude théorique de l'adsorption sélective du phénol par des matériaux zéolithiques pour la purification des biocarburants

Abstract : Biofuels from the transformation of second-generation biomass (2G) are expected to replace fossil fuels in the transport sector. However, the biofuels obtained after the co-treatment (bio- oil refining) still contain 0.5 to 7.0 wt% oxygenated compounds, in particular phenolic molecules, which leads to form carcinogenic benzene during combustion in the engine. In this context, a new challenge is to use selective adsorption to remove phenolic compounds from liquid fuels. As a first step in our work, we used DFT calculations to design a suitable porous material in the family of faujasites exchanged with monovalent cations (cation = H+, Li+, Na+, Cs+, Ag+, and Cu+) in order to find a zeolitic formulation with a high affinity for phenol in the presence of water and toluene (biofuel model molecule). We have found that increasing the amount of the protonated and Lewis acid sites in the faujasite structure would be an appropriate mean of selectively purifying second-generation biofuels by removing phenol molecules. The second step is to study the removal of phenol from an isooctane solution over a faujasite containing protons that was considered as a good cation in the first step. Herein, we focused on the effect of the Si/Al ratio on the adsorption and regeneration capacities of the studied zeolites. For this deeper investigation, we have used a powerful combination of two types of modeling techniques: i) density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the binding energies of phenol with several types of faujasite formulations, ii) the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) was used to find the adsorption capacities of each used protonated zeolite. The obtained results are compared with those measured by various experimental tools (infrared spectroscopy, breakthrough curves and desorption experiments). As results, we have found that phenol was selectively removed from isooctane into HY (Si/Al=2.5) and USY (Si/Al=47) zeolites with a maximal adsorption capacity of 2.2 mmol·g−1, which corresponds to 3−4 phenol molecules per supercage of a faujasite structure. The adsorption equilibrium was reached more rapidly in DAY (Si /Al = ∞) compared to faujasites with a large amount of protonated sites, due to the presence of large pores at the expense of micro porosity as well as a low density of acidic sites. We have also shown that USY zeolites have good regenerative capacity compared to faujasites with high amounts of protonated sites. Indeed, after temperature programmed desorption, there is a low amount of residual phenol in the faujasite containing a small amount of protonated sites, in agreement with our low adsorption energy of phenol computed for this formulation.
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Hicham Jabraoui. Étude théorique de l'adsorption sélective du phénol par des matériaux zéolithiques pour la purification des biocarburants. Chimie. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0044⟩. ⟨tel-02328052⟩

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