Étude de la synthèse des furocoumarines chez le panais par des approches d'ingénierie métabolique et de multi-omique

Abstract : Plants are subjected to many environmental stresses during their life. Faced with these constraints, plants have developed different strategies during their evolution. The most emblematic is the establishment of a specialized metabolism, represented by a great chemical and functional diversity. Although this metabolism has been studied more and more in recent years, many gaps remain, related in particular (i) to the complexity of the metabolomic changes generated by the perception of stress, (ii) to the costs and benefits that these metabolites impute to the producing plant, and (iii) to the metabolic pathways leading to the diversity of compounds. To cope with these different issues, we adopted a strategy combining approaches of phytochemistry, molecular biology and genetics. First, we studied global metabolic changes caused by the application of two environmental stresses, ozone and mechanical wounding, on parsnip. The obtained results allowed us to identify 40 metabolites differentially accumulated under these conditions, including some furocoumarins. Subsequently, we focused our study on these molecules by evaluating their accumulation profiles under mechanical wounding stress condition, using differential analyzes. From this data, we initiated the search and identification of candidate genes potentially involved in this pathway based on transcriptomic and genomic parsnip libraries analyses. The function of the selected genes was evaluated by heterologous expression approach in yeast. In parallel to this work, we have developed a strategy to better understand the metabolic cost of specialized metabolites synthesis. To do this, we have adapted a multigene cloning method to furocoumarines, allowing to transfer several genes involved in the same pathway in a plant, in a single operation. This method allowed us to initiate the generation of stable lines having integrated the first two genes of the pathway. These plants will be compared to wild plants and will thus allow to study the metabolic and physiological costs of the introduction of this new biosynthetic pathway and its benefits in terms of plant defense.
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Gianni Galati. Étude de la synthèse des furocoumarines chez le panais par des approches d'ingénierie métabolique et de multi-omique. Agronomie. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0065⟩. ⟨tel-02330816⟩

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