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Réponses du peuplier soumis à une combinaison de contraintes, ozone et sécheresse : dynamique de la conductance stomatique et des capacités antioxydantes foliaires

Abstract : Climate models indicate that it is very likely that plants will be more and more exposed to two environmental stressors: ground-level ozone (O3) and soil water deficit, both causing oxidative stress to the plant. Under natural conditions, these two factors can be concomitant or successive. Therefore, the impact of O3 and drought requires special attention. In order to determine the defensive responses adopted by trees, two genotypes of Populus nigra x deltoides (Carpaccio and Robusta) were exposed to separate or combined stresses under controlled conditions in growing chambers. To explore the effects of stresses and their interaction, we targeted the plant’s first two levels of defence: i) the control of stomatal opening and closing, ii) the cellular detoxification processes. Our results show that both Carpaccio and Robusta are relatively tolerant to moderate drought thanks to an efficient stomatal control. However, different response strategies were adopted by the two genotypes to cope with O3. For Carpaccio, the strategy is avoidance, and for Robusta, the strategy is maximization of net CO2 assimilation at the expense of leaves. This results in a difference in the stomatal closure. The two genotypes do not face the same flow of O3 entering the leaves. This impacts cellular detoxification in which glutathione seems to play a major role. Also, the activity of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes (MDHAR, DHAR and GR) and/or the expression of genes encoding these proteins are modified. Under combined stresses, the water deficit protects the plant from the O3-induced oxidative stress by amplifying the stomatal closure. Nevertheless, the tree growth is impacted by the additive effect of the two stresses. Furthermore, the induction of different hormonal regulatory pathways by the two stressors could modify the complex "cross-talk" regulating the response to combined stress. Finally, in the case of a succession of stresses, exposure to O3 prior to a drought episode has a weak impact on the tree's response. However, O3 induced a stomatal sluggishness in closure despite the cessation of fumigation. It is therefore necessary to take into account stomatal closure and sluggishness induced by O3 and water deficit in the stomatal conductance models used to calculate the indicator of O3 flux inside the leaves, PODy (Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold of y nmol O3 m-2.s-1).
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02331001
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Nicolas Dusart. Réponses du peuplier soumis à une combinaison de contraintes, ozone et sécheresse : dynamique de la conductance stomatique et des capacités antioxydantes foliaires. Biologie végétale. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0070⟩. ⟨tel-02331001⟩

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