Study of rare earth element responsive genes in model organisms

Abstract : Rare earth elements (REEs) are strategic metals whose demand in the 21st century is increasing as a result of their essential properties useful to the fields of renewable energies, medicine, and high-technologies. They are classified as heavy REEs (HREEs), light REEs (LREEs) and non-lanthanides. Their dissemination in the environment, together with poor recyclability, leads REEs to be considered emerging contaminants, for which toxicity studies are currently very fragmented. To build a strong general foundation on the cellular and molecular response to REEs, we first adopted high-throughput and complementary strategies to study the REE stress response and their uptake in the unicellular eukaryotic model Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The deletome, transcriptome, proteome and ionome of yeast were analysed together with in-depth physiological experiments. Although common responses between REEs and other metals were highlighted, REE-specific responses were predominant. Cell wall composition, sphingolipid biosynthesis, the ESCRT pathway and endocytosis were emphasized as key elements in the cellular response to REEs. Second, we explored how REEs affect the transcriptome and ionome of the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana. REE exposure negatively affected the root architecture, as revealed by the modulation of auxin-related genes. REEs impaired the ionome, and Fe deficiency-related genes were largely represented among the most differentially expressed genes in both roots and leaves. Additionally, to identify new REE-accumulating plant models, collections of ferns and Phytolacca species were screened. Despite a conserved REE accumulation trait for Phytolacca and a few fern genera, HREE enrichment was observed in Phytolacca, while LREEs were preferentially transferred into the fronds of all fern species. However, several Dryopteris species harboured contrasting REE contents in the fronds. The latter species will be of great importance in deciphering the mechanisms of REE accumulation and tolerance. Overall, the response towards REEs differed according to their ionic radius. The cell wall composition, vacuolar detoxification, and the accumulation and fractionation of REEs notably accounted for these differences. Our findings support LREE-mediated entry through calcium channels, while new evidence was provided for the role of Fe transporters in the accumulation of HREEs. In conclusion, we have provided new insights into REE toxicity and specificities, together with the molecular elucidation of REE effects that have not previously been mechanistically explained. This work is a first multi-approach comprehensive groundwork that will be used for future studies to deepen the understanding and assessment of REE toxicity in organisms.
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/ulprive/DDOC_T_2019_0077_GROSJEAN.pdf
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-02350509
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Submitted on : Wednesday, November 6, 2019 - 8:53:32 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, November 7, 2019 - 1:32:17 AM

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  • HAL Id : tel-02350509, version 1

Citation

Nicolas Grosjean. Study of rare earth element responsive genes in model organisms. Environmental Engineering. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0077⟩. ⟨tel-02350509⟩

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