Non-equilibrium dynamics of driven low-dimensional quantum systems

Abstract : This thesis analyzes some aspects regarding the dynamics of one-dimensional quantum systems which are driven out-of-equilibrium by the presence of time- dependent external fields. Among the possible kinds of driven systems, our focus is dedicated to the slow variation of a Hamiltonian’s parameter across a quantum phase transition and to the case of a time-periodic forcing. To begin with, we prepare the background and the tools needed in the following. This includes a brief introduction to quantum critical models (in particular to the xy spin chain and to the Bose-Hubbard model), the Kibble-Zurek mechanism and Floquet theory. Next, we consider the non-equilibrium dynamics of Tonks-Girardeau gases in time-dependent harmonic trap potentials. The analysis is made with different techniques: perturbative expansions, numerical exact diagonalization and exact methods based on the theory of Ermakov-Lewis dynamical invariants. The last part of the thesis deals instead with the non-equilibrium dynamics of markovian open quantum systems subject to time-periodic perturbations of the system parameters and of the environment. This has led to an exact formulation of Floquet theory for a Lindblad dynamics. Moreover, within the Lindblad-Floquet framework it is possible to have an exact characterization ofthe finite-time operation of quantum heat-engines.
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Stefano Scopa. Non-equilibrium dynamics of driven low-dimensional quantum systems. General Physics [physics.gen-ph]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0084⟩. ⟨tel-02351593⟩

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