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Contribution à l’amélioration des connaissances sur les asthmes en relation avec le travail

Abstract : Work-related asthma (WRA) includes work aggravation of preexisting asthma (WEA) and new-onset asthma induced by occupational exposure (OA). Making an accurate diagnosis of WRA is important, the condition having significant health consequences and substantial socio-economic impacts. The first part is based on a literature review including data on prevalence, risk factors and diagnosis procedures of WRA. The issues in diagnosing WRA are also discussed, as well as the use of airway inflammation markers (FeNO levels and sputum eosinophils). The second part shows an analysis of epidemiological data in 417 apprentices in baking, pastry-cooking and hairdressing, which are populations at risk of OA. Mixed-effect models were applied and showed that the degree of sensitization was related to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and FeNO levels. Compared to non-sensitized subjects, FeNO levels were 83% higher (p>0,01) in highly sensitized subjects and 30% higher (p<0,01) in weakly sensitized subjects. The third part describes the protocol of a field study aiming to collect new data on clinical, epidemiological and economical aspects of WRA. It focuses especially on the design of tools and decision algorithms, such as a screening questionnaire, and more advanced questionnaires on control, quality of life, expositions and socio-economic consequences, and a peak-flow journal. Screening results show that a substantial number of workers declare asthma-like respiratory symptoms, some of which being possibly related to work. Despite the importance of WRA diagnosis, diagnostic procedures are still being discussed. Although the apprentice study showed an association between airway inflammation markers (FeNO levels) and atopy markers (prick-tests), their use in the diagnostic procedure is still under discussion. Diagnostic procedures that could be used in populations at work are also subject to think about, in particular in epidemiological study, with the difficulty of differentiating OA from WEA. Thus, in the ARPEIGE study, a screening questionnaire was useful to collect data on asthma-like respiratory symptoms. Nevertheless, few screened workers agreed to go further and fill in the peak flow journal. Similarly, in the literature asthma and COPD screening campaigns using spirometry seemed difficult to implement. There is a lack of strategies that would enable a more accurate screening of WRA.
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Hermine Mével. Contribution à l’amélioration des connaissances sur les asthmes en relation avec le travail. Sciences du Vivant [q-bio]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0119⟩. ⟨tel-02460677⟩

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