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Évolution génomique au sein d'une population naturelle de Streptomyces

Abstract : Streptomyces are rhizospheric bacteria that contribute to soil fertility (recycling of organic matter), plant growth and health. They have among the largest bacterial genomes (12 Mb) with a high genetic variability. The genome variability, observed at the interspecific level has never been addressed within a population, i.e. between sympatric individuals belonging to the same species (Conspecific strains) within the same ecological niche. The objective of this work was to investigate this diversity in the forest soil ecosystem, to estimate its dynamics and its potential functional roles. After sequencing and comparison of the complete genomes, we observed a wide genomic diversity in terms of size, presence/absence of extrachromosomal elements, but also in terms of presence/absence of genes along the chromosome. A large number of insertion and deletion events (indels) from 1 to 241 genes differentiate individuals in the population. Given the close phylogenetic relationship of these strains, the common ancestor of the population is recent, hence the genomic diversity would result from a massive and rapid gene flux. The high prevalence of integrative and conjugative elements in the population suggests that conjugation could act as a driving force of this diversity. Differential production of specialized metabolites (antibiotics) was also used to estimate the impact of genetic diversity on population’s ecology. We were able to show that this production was linked to strain specific genes and that it may constitute a « public good » for the population. We propose that the rapid evolution of the genome contributes to the maintenance of social cohesion mechanisms within these soil bacteria.
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Abdoul-Razak Tidjani. Évolution génomique au sein d'une population naturelle de Streptomyces. Ecosystèmes. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0159⟩. ⟨tel-02461512⟩



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