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Circulation et réception des fables dans les pays slaves entre 1750 et 1850

Abstract : The thesis deals with the spreading and the reception of fables in Slavic countries between 1750 and 1850, although some fables, published later, have also been taken into consideration.The great majority of the fables taken into account are Russian or Polish but other fables, either Ukranian, Czech, Slovene, Croatian,or Serbian, much rarer and belated, have also been dealt with.. Slavic fables have been compared with fables of western Europe in order to estimate the impact they may have had on one another.The first part is structured round the writers of fables: their implication in the great historical movements of their respective countries, their involvement in the cultural life of their countries and their place in society. This part ends with a chapter dedicated to the few women fable writers, Russian and Polish, whose presence, although very discreet, is nonetheless significant of the influence women may have had on societies in which only men were visible. A picture of that time has also been made, based on a group of less than 200 persons but who are very representative of the elite of their time.The second part deals with the fables and their literary, geographical and thematic evolution. It starts with the classical fables which, at different times according to the countries, contributed to the development of a national classicism. The fable was used as an educational tool in its moral dimension, and also as a medium of social satire and political involvement. In addition, the impact of the sentimentalist trend on the fables at the end of the 18th century in Russia, Poland and Bohemia has been analysed too. The other countries hadn’t yet experienced their cultural awakening. Romanticism had a more mixed influence on fables. On the one hand the fable was a means of expression for the new-born national feeling which included both the people and the past, partly relying on the folklore, on the other hand Romanticism itself put an end to fables which, for the Romantics, were a subject of study at its best or a medium through which they could express their fancy.The third part is a study of rewritings, translations and imitations. Fables spread from west to east with the rewriting of ancient fable writers from la Fontaine to contemporary Europeans: Germans, French, English and a few others.Then there were the rewritings of Russian fables, mainly Krasicki’s and Krylov’s. The counterpart was the translation of Slavic fables into French during the Restauration. The double nature of fables has also been underlined: a classic genre above all else, it is immutable but also open to all interpretrations. It was wholly attuned with its time, while adapting itself to the various cultures, but its golden age ended with the last convulsions of classicism. It can be noticed that no faithful translation existed at that time. Everything was rewritten and fables offered a repertoire whose characters and stories, based on their folklore, form a common source that can be used endlessly. Moreover, for various reasons, mainly historical ones, Slavic fables haven’t had the recognition they deserve in our western culture
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Denise Le Guennec. Circulation et réception des fables dans les pays slaves entre 1750 et 1850. Littératures. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0172⟩. ⟨tel-02485325⟩



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