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Réussir sa première année à l'université : les enjeux de la transition entre secondaire et supérieur

Abstract : There are many reasons for the high dropout rate in the first academic year. The phenomenon of freshman "evaporating" is studied in many countries as a crucial moment in the transition from secondary to higher education. It is not always easy for a high school student to become master of his destiny in a very short time after secondary and just before starting his studies at university. Student must quickly assume new “adult responsibilities "and lives without parental or teacher supervision. Study at university requires the learner to put into action a certain number of skills most of which are not mastered at the end of high school. These are not only cognitive-informational skills. Our point of interest is turned towards the macrosociological and microsociological elements in the relationship that these students established with the act of learning. We were looking for knowing: Why do students decide to drop up or to persevere and continue their studies despite the difficulties? What is the role of the study environment in this transition? How the conception of learning and the image of university could have an impact on this transition?To answer we used a qualitative approach based on comprehensive interviews. We interviewed the freshmen in six field of study at four universities in the Paris region. We were looking for students who had problems. They told us about their difficulties in this year of higher education and the reasons for their dissatisfaction.Through their point of view, their conceptions of learning, their perspective and their image of higher education, we have been able to highlight some of the causes that can explain dropping out or staying in the first academic year. Four types of difficulties are distinguished: cognitive, metacognitive, integration and motivational. A more advanced analysis of our data revealed that these difficulties do not have the same impact on the student's transition.Some elements have also appeared through the analyses, such as the importance of the microsocialisation within small groups of students, especially between the friends. We have found that micro-integrations can make up the absence of macro-integrations and sometimes they’re even more important. Our analyses have shown that some factors of social integration can modify the influence of the predictive factors of drop out.We also apprehended certain factors capable of reinforcing or impoverish the student's sense of learning and his/her perseverance.
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Mitra Zibanejad-Belin. Réussir sa première année à l'université : les enjeux de la transition entre secondaire et supérieur. Education. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0204⟩. ⟨tel-02503781⟩



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