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Effets de nanomatériaux chez deux espèces de bivalves le long d'un gradient de salinité : approches intégrées physiologiques et moléculaires

Abstract : Nanotechnology is constantly evolving and leads to the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) into daily commercial products. The synthesis of ENM and the use of products containing those ENM leads to their release in the environment but the risk of ENM is not yet known. The particular physico-chemical properties of ENM makes the evaluation of their toxicity particularly difficult and still not completely solved now. This thesis is integrated to the ANR NanoSALT (2013-2017) and aims to evaluate the fate and the effects of cerium dioxide and copper oxide ENM in two bivalve species representative of freshwaters (Corbicula fluminea) and of seawaters (Scrobicularia plana). The organisms were exposed to realistic concentrations of these ENM at different stage of their life-cycle, and through the setting up of exposure increasingly closed to environmental conditions (micro- and mesocosms). Nowadays, few nanotoxicology studies have adopted an approach of molecular biology for the evaluation and the comprehension of ENM effects in invertebrates, and more particularly in non-sequenced species. One of the objective of the thesis was to use the qPCR approach for the evaluation of the gene expression perturbation by ENM. This work allowed to determine the fate and the behavior of ENM in the different exposure conditions. The evaluation of ENM effects has been done at different biological scales (molecular, cellular, individual). The use of multivariate statistical tools has been particularly useful for the analysis of the expression variations of the targeted genes. The multi-marker approach at different biological scales allowed the integration of a lot of data, which generally allowed us to differentiate the effects of the different forms of ENM.
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Vanessa Koehle-Divo. Effets de nanomatériaux chez deux espèces de bivalves le long d'un gradient de salinité : approches intégrées physiologiques et moléculaires. Ecotoxicologie. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0254⟩. ⟨tel-02556084⟩

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