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Étude comparative de la réactivité des cellules du système immunitaire (invertébrés et vertébrés) vis-à-vis des pesticides

Abstract : Synthetic pesticides are increasingly used in modern pest control and in conventional agriculture and thus their residuals can be found frequently in our environment and in our food. The most commonly used group of insecticides are the neonicotinoids and residues of them have been found in treated vegetables and fruits, as well as in honey bees, their pollen, and honey. Even if these encountered environmental concentrations are rather small compared to concentrations for acute toxicity they still lead to sublethal effects in the exposed organism. Several studies showed a weakening effect of neonicotinoids on pollinators when confronted with pathogens and other pesticides are linked to several diseases in human. Thus pesticides might have a direct impact on the immune system of invertebrates and/or vertebrates. In recent years a dramatic decline of pollinators has been reported for the northern hemisphere. Many assumptions have been made on the cause of this decline mentioning pathogens, climate change, habitat loss and pesticide exposure, while there is still no evidence that one of these alone might be the ultimate cause. Although several studies have been conducted on the effect of pesticides and the simultaneous exposure of bees to pathogens only few of these have been concentrating on the actual immune response of pollinating insect immune cells like those of honeybees and of Drosophila melanogaster. Innate immune responses in mammals and insects do show several functional similarities. Cells, especially phagocytes, of these innate immune systems are comparable both in terms of morphology and reactivity towards pathogen recognition. This responsiveness involves mobility, morbidity or production of warning and defense molecules (cytokines, ROS...), making these cells early indicators of environmental pollution. The objective of this PhD is thus to compare the cytotoxicity of pesticides and their metabolites on immune system cells of invertebrates and vertebrates.
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Louise Walderdorff. Étude comparative de la réactivité des cellules du système immunitaire (invertébrés et vertébrés) vis-à-vis des pesticides. Ecotoxicologie. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0268⟩. ⟨tel-02558402⟩

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