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Experimental study of the formation of pollutants during the combustion of bio-oil surrogate molecules

Abstract : In 2016, fossil fuels represented about 80% of the world total primary energy supply. However, this resource is limited and has a huge impact on the environment pollution because of the production of greenhouse gases. In order to drastically reduce greenhouse gases emissions, a focus on biofuels, and especially bio-oils, is made in the industrial world and for transportation. The IMPROOF project is funded by the European Union under the SPIRE framework. Its objective is to improve the energy efficiency in the case of steam cracking furnaces by 20% and in parallel to decrease by 25% per ton of ethylene the emission of pollutants like NOx or greenhouse gases. This PhD is focused on the part concerning the use of alternative fuels and especially bio-oils for the heating of the steam cracking furnaces. To better assess bio-oil oxidation or pyrolysis, a bibliographical review about the publications dealing with the composition of bio-oils have been performed. From this review, it comes out that bio-oils could be described as a mixture composed of six main types of chemical compounds: alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, furans and derivatives, oxygenated aromatic compounds and nitrogen organic compounds. In order to complete some detected lack in the literature, the aim of this thesis was to produce a new experimental dataset for molecules owning to the five first chemical families previously presented. A jet-stirred reactor was chosen to perform the experiments, due to its homogeneity in concentration and composition. This kind of “ideal” reactor is indeed convenient for the development of reliable data for the development and validation of kinetic models. During this work, eight fuels were selected and studied: n-butanol, n-pentanol, n-butanal, n-pentanal, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, furan and benzaldehyde. For each fuel, the experimental results were used to develop and validate a kinetic model. Those models were afterward used to study the decomposition pathways of the studied species.
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Sylvain Namysl. Experimental study of the formation of pollutants during the combustion of bio-oil surrogate molecules. Chemical and Process Engineering. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0279⟩. ⟨tel-02559037⟩

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