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Étude de la circulation du virus de l’hépatite E entre l’Homme et l’environnement par caractérisation moléculaire de souches humaines et environnementales

Abstract : Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes hepatitis in humans. Although HEV infection is mainly self-limiting, chronic forms have been described in immunocompromised patients. Four major genotypes have been described. Genotypes 1 and 2 circulate in developing countries where they only infect humans with a waterborne transmission. Genotypes 3 and 4 mainly circulate in developed countries where they infect humans and some animals (pigs, wild boars, deer), and are transmitted to humans through consumption of an infected animal’s raw or undercooked meat. However, HEV transmission paths are still unclear in developed countries and a waterborne transmission is suspected. The aim of this work was to clarify HEV circulation in North-Eastern France (as a model of a developed country). We have studied human, wild boar, farm pig samples, effluent water from a pig slaughterhouse, incoming water of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and little pure water mussels that can concentrate viruses possibly present in rivers. Genotype 3 HEV has been recovered from human, wild boars, slaughterhouse and WWTP samples. Several amino acid substitutions have been brought out. Some are possible signatures of a sample’s origin. Some lead to modifications in predicted antigenicity and hydrophobicity, which can have consequences on the virus’ behaviour and circulation. Finally, the WWTP samples showed a mixture of variants from different origins, in favour of a role of water in HEV circulation. Functional tests need to be performed to measure the impact of the observed substitutions.
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  • HAL Id : tel-02998315, version 1

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Honorine Fenaux. Étude de la circulation du virus de l’hépatite E entre l’Homme et l’environnement par caractérisation moléculaire de souches humaines et environnementales. Maladies infectieuses. Université de Lorraine, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0108⟩. ⟨tel-02998315⟩

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