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Economic and environmental assessment of regional development measures of an economic sector at multiple scales : the case of the forest and wood sector in the French region Grand Est

Abstract : The objective of this thesis is to develop a method for quantitative assessments of the economic and environmental performance of regional development strategies, applied to the forestry sector in the region Grand Est. To this end, we adopt an approach based on the coupling of modelling tools from economics and environmental sciences. In chapter 1, we analyse couplings between 5 economic models and 3 environmental assessment tools from the existing literature. A dedicated criteria grid allows to compare their relevance to provide integrative assessments at the meso scale. Couplings between equilibrium models on the one hand, and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on the other hand, best meet the defined objectives. Chapter 2 details the methodological framework of the coupling between a partial equilibrium model of the French forest sector and LCA. The homogenisation of material flows between the two models makes it possible to produce economic and environmental indicators with a coherent perimeter, the ratio of which provides two eco-efficiency indicators. The first combines the economic surplus of the forest-based sector with its potential environmental impacts (Partial Eco-Efficiency, PEE); the second adds the environmental impacts avoided by substitution between wood-energy and fossil fuels, compared to a reference scenario (Full Eco-Efficiency, FEE). In Chapter 3, we use this framework to analyse different wood energy oriented bio-economy development strategies at the national level and at the regional level in the region Grand Est. For this purpose, we compare the FEE of scenarios constructed by combinations of different policies: subsidising wood energy demand, local supply, forest protection, energy crisis. Strategies integrating a stimulation of wood energy demand are the most eco-efficient, at regional and national level. This is based in particular on the benefits of avoided impacts through the substitution of wood energy for fossil fuels. The combination of the subsidy with protection measures and/or local procurement slightly increases or decreases its eco-efficiency depending on the scale of implementation. In addition, we have identified other factors determining most the eco-efficiency of a policy, such as the characteristics of the forest resource, the importance of the local wood sector, and the characteristics of neighbouring regions.
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Thomas Beaussier. Economic and environmental assessment of regional development measures of an economic sector at multiple scales : the case of the forest and wood sector in the French region Grand Est. Economics and Finance. Université de Lorraine, 2020. English. ⟨NNT : 2020LORR0138⟩. ⟨tel-03078484⟩

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