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Indentation instrumentée du tissu cardiaque : vers l’élaboration d’une bio-prothèse

Abstract : Despite undeniable progress of the heart function understanding and in the improvement of medical and surgical techniques, ischaemic heart failure is still a major cause of death worldwide. New therapeutic approaches, such as regenerative medicine and tissue engineering are being developed to compensate or even replace damaged tissues. One of the attempts of tissue engineering is to reproduce as closely as possible the mechanical behavior of the tissue to be treated. In this thesis work, an approach linking the mechanical characterisation of healthy heart tissue with its microstructure was carried out. To this end and in order to avoid the degradation of the material properties due to its drying out and/or de-vascularisation, an experimental protocol was defined to perform the measurements in a context close to its physiological environment. The cardiac tissue was thus characterised through the estimation of Young's modulus in two main directions by spherical indentation. These results thus confirmed the anisotropic nature of the cardiac tissue. The search for the time limits for using the samples after collection (ex-vivo experimentation) enabled us to define a tissue rigidification kinetics which can be compared to the dating techniques used in forensic medicine. One perspective to this thesis work is the development of a passive substitute material in order to obtain membranes whose mechanical properties are close to those of cardiac tissue. On the basis of the mechanical characterization of the myocardium, a model of the mechanical behavior of a bio-prosthesis has been defined. A first membrane prototype has been produced and tested on small animals. These results were an essential step in the development of biomechanical assistance within the framework of a European ERDF ASCATIM project (2018-2021). Finally, a first transposition of the method developed for cardiac tissue was proposed for a biological material whose mechanical characteristics are unknown: cortical bone.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 6, 2021 - 1:59:45 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-03335673, version 1

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Jean-Philippe Jehl. Indentation instrumentée du tissu cardiaque : vers l’élaboration d’une bio-prothèse. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0033⟩. ⟨tel-03335673⟩

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