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Caractérisation des formes d’agriculture et évaluation de leur résilience aux perturbations

Abstract : In response to the issues of environmental impact and dependence on fossil resources of modern agriculture, new agriculture models have emerged: regenerative, integrated agriculture, agroforestry, for example. They aim to use ecosystem services provided to farmer (ESF) as a support for agricultural production to replace anthropogenic inputs. Their resilience to climate change and economic market fluctuations, i.e. their capacity to cope with these disturbances, is the subject of intense debate. Yet, knowledge of their resilience would be key to accelerating their adoption by the agricultural community and achieving sustainability goals. In response to this challenge, my PhD thesis aimed to produce knowledge on the resilience of different agriculture cropping models. To achieve this objective, first, I synthesized the literature on the quantitative assessment of resilience, and related concepts such as vulnerability and robustness (V, R, R). A first publication shows that intensification and diversification of production are not systematic factors of VRR and that it is necessary to consider functional, rather than taxonomic, diversity and to adapt agricultural practices, to the pedoclimate and to the availability of local resources, to ensure VRR in the short and long term. A second publication describes the diversity of methods and criteria for analyzing the dynamics used so far and points out the need to develop multi-criteria and multi-performance approaches that go beyond yield analysis alone. Then, I developed and applied a method for assessing the level of ESF to characterize agroecosystems and identify agriculture models. ESF levels were differentiated according to the potential capacity of ESF, the real capacity of ESF, the actual use of ESF for production, and the long-term dynamics of natural capital, which underlies ESF. The potential and real levels of ESF are assessed indirectly with indicators of the quality of the spatial and temporal configuration of the agroecosystem and the impact of cropping practices. The level of ESF used is estimated by the technology implemented to assess ESF real capacity. The dynamics of natural capital is estimated by the aggregation of indicators of erosion sensitivity, soil carbon and phosphorus dynamics and biodiversity. Applied to a case study in Grand Est region in France of 34 agroecosystems contrasted in terms of crop rotation and cropping practices, I identified with a clustering method five agriculture models. Finally, I developed a method to assess the resilience of these agroecosystems and associated agriculture models in the face of disturbances. I analyzed the dynamics of the yield, gross margin and workload considering their average level, variability, trend and/or resistance over the last eight years. I thus showed that models with a high level of ESF and biodiversity, and which increase their natural capital, present a better stability of yield and gross margin but a generally lower level of production. In contrast, intensive systems have higher levels and greater resistance of yields and gross margins but require a greater amount of labor. I have also observed that the systems that use ESF the most have good agronomic and economic performances, resistant to disturbances. Thus, I hypothesize that the combination of a high level of ESF and the optimization of their use would avoid the use of inputs while achieving high, resistant yields. However, to achieve this goal, it would be necessary to increase the levels of potential and used ESF, which are still insufficient in the agroecosystems studied.In summary, this work has produced knowledge on the nature of agriculture models and resilience factors and original methods to assess the levels of ESF and their resilience. Its results show the interest, with a view to resilience, of developing and mobilizing ESF and alert on the importance of restoring natural capital, often degraded by decades of intensive agriculture.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, October 19, 2021 - 10:22:57 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, October 21, 2021 - 5:33:52 AM


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Manon Dardonville. Caractérisation des formes d’agriculture et évaluation de leur résilience aux perturbations. Sciences agricoles. Université de Lorraine, 2021. Français. ⟨NNT : 2021LORR0123⟩. ⟨tel-03384748⟩



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