Clinical impact of hepatitis B and C virus envelope glycoproteins

Abstract : Chronic infection by either hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) share epidemiological characteristics with risks for development of severe complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV and HCV also share a high genetic variability. Among highly variable regions, viral genes encoding surface proteins (hepatitis B surface antigen, E1/E2 HCV glycoproteins) play key roles in the stimulation of the host-related immune response and viral entry into hepatocytes. Specific segments of HBV envelope proteins (preS1, "a" determinant) are crucial in the entry process into permissive cells. HCV entry is a complex multistep process involving multiple cell cofactors (glycosaminoglycans, low density lipoprotein receptor, SR-B1, CD81, claudin-1, occludin, EGFR, EphA2) in the interaction with HCV E1/E2 envelope glycoproteins. In vitro both viruses can be controlled by antibody-mediated neutralization targeting viral envelope, also essential in preventing HBV infection in vivo as observed through successful vaccination using HBs antigen. But preventive vaccination and/or therapeutic pressure can influence HBV and HCV variability. For HBV, the patterns of antiviral drug resistance in chronic hepatitis are complex and the original pol/S gene overlap has to be taken into account. Treatment-induced HBV mutations in pol could indeed generate S mutants with subsequent modified antigenicity or increased cancer induction. Variability of HBV and HCV envelope proteins combining high exposure to selective pressures and crucial functional roles require investigation in the context of diagnostic, vaccination and treatment tools. In this editorial a synthesis is performed of HBV and HCV envelope properties at the entry step and as antigenic proteins, and the subsequent clinical impact.
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World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Co. Limited, 2013, 19 (5), pp.654-664. 〈http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v19/i5/654.htm〉. 〈10.3748/wjg.v19.i5.654〉
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Hélène Jeulin, Aurélie Velay, John Murray, Evelyne Schvoerer. Clinical impact of hepatitis B and C virus envelope glycoproteins. World Journal of Gastroenterology, Baishideng Publishing Group Co. Limited, 2013, 19 (5), pp.654-664. 〈http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/full/v19/i5/654.htm〉. 〈10.3748/wjg.v19.i5.654〉. 〈hal-01481003〉

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