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Master thesis

Virus entériques et transmission hydrique : méthodes analytiques, efficacité des filières d'épuration et contamination sur des sites littoraux avec coquillages

Abstract : Enteric viruses are major gastroenteritis and hepatitis agents, quantity and duration of excretion by infected people is very important and inducing waste water contamination mainly during winter. A quantitative survey of Norovirus, Astrovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus 40-41, Sapovirus, Enterovirus, Aïchi virus, hepatitis A and E virus (and Escherichia coli for comparison) was performed between January and April in eleven wastewater treatment plants in Normandy (France) with five different disinfection types. Moreover, the presence of these viruses in river water, sediments and shellfish was evaluated in three coastal sites between wastewater plant facility (WWTP) and beach. An average of 2 to 2,5 log reduction is performed by activated sludge secondary treatment. Membrane bioreactor systems perform 4 to 6 log reduction. Tertiary lagoons and sand filters performed 1,5 to 3 log reduction (e.g. 3,5 to 5 log with activated sludge upstream). Reed bed performed 1 log reduction. Sites contamination seems coming mainly from urban diffuse pollution more than from WWTP effluents. Sediments and shellfish could play a role of "viral pollution recorder". In oysters, several weeks look necessary for virus depuration. Furthermore, shellfish from class B oyster breading area (with E.coli criteria) are no contaminated with enteric viruses, in accordance with their sanitary classification. In Granville class D area, shellfish watching highlights Rotavirus epidemic confirmed by some hospital precise statistics but undervalued by medical "Sentinelles" monitoring network. Hepatitis A virus was absent from our data, acting the very low endemicity in Normandy.
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Master thesis
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/public/BUS_M_2012_COLLET_NAIS.pdf
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-01871433
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Naïs Collet. Virus entériques et transmission hydrique : méthodes analytiques, efficacité des filières d'épuration et contamination sur des sites littoraux avec coquillages. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. 2012. ⟨hal-01871433⟩

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