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Microenvironment Remodeling and Subsequent Clinical Implications in Diffuse Large B-Cell Histologic Variant of Richter Syndrome

Abstract : Introduction: Richter Syndrome (RS) is defined as the development of an aggressive lymphoma in the context of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL), with a Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) histology in 95% cases. RS genomic landscape shares only a few features with de novo DLBCLs and is marked by a wide spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities. Little is known about RS microenvironment. Therapeutic options and efficacy are limited, leading to a 12 months median overall survival. The new targeted treatments usually effective in CLL fail to obtain long-term remissions in RS. Methods: We reviewed available PubMed literature about RS genomics, PD-1/PD-L1 (Programmed Death 1/Programmed Death Ligand 1) pathway triggering and subsequent new therapeutic options. Results: Data from about 207 patients from four landmark papers were compiled to build an overview of RS genomic lesions and point mutations. A number of these abnormalities may be involved in tumor microenvironment reshaping. T lymphocyte exhaustion through PD-L1 overexpression by tumor cells and subsequent PD-1/PD-L1 pathway triggering is frequently reported in solid cancers. This immune checkpoint inhibitor is also described in B lymphoid malignancies, particularly CLL: PD-1 expression is reported in a subset of prolymphocytes from the CLL lymph node proliferation centers. However, there is only few data about PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in RS. In RS, PD-1 expression is a hallmark of recently described « Regulatory B-cells », which interact with tumor microenvironment by producing inhibiting cytokines such as TGF-band IL-10, impairing T lymphocytes anti-tumoral function. Based upon the discovery of high PD-1 expression on tumoral B lymphocyte from RS, immune checkpoint blockade therapies such as anti-PD-1 antibodies have been tested on small RS cohorts and provided heterogeneous but encouraging results. Conclusion: RS genetic landscape and immune evasion mechanisms are being progressively unraveled. New protocols using targeted treatments such as checkpoint inhibitors as single agents or in combination with immunochemotherapy are currently being evaluated.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/hal-03087137
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Submitted on : Saturday, December 4, 2021 - 12:41:25 AM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 4, 2022 - 5:49:10 AM

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Hélène Augé, Anne-Béatrice Notarantonio, Romain Morizot, Anne Quinquenel, Luc-Matthieu Fornecker, et al.. Microenvironment Remodeling and Subsequent Clinical Implications in Diffuse Large B-Cell Histologic Variant of Richter Syndrome. Frontiers in Immunology, Frontiers, 2020, 11, pp.594841. ⟨10.3389/fimmu.2020.594841⟩. ⟨hal-03087137⟩

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