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Les mardelles intra-forestières de Lorraine : origines, archives paléo-environnementales, évolutions dynamiques et gestion conservatoire

Abstract : Within the ancient oak-hornbeam-beech forests of the Plateau Lorrain, there are thousands of closed wet depressions called Mardelles. The question of their origin (natural or anthropogenic) has been debated for over 150 years, but they have not been the focus of any integrated study yet. LiDAR surveys in the region Dieuze-Sarrebourg (Moselle), reveal a dense network of Mardelles, of similar size, spaced regularly and frequently enclosed in a fossil agricultural cadastre. Geological surveys and excavations of Mardelles show that their distribution is not related to the presence of soluble materials (salt, gypsum) in the basement or karst collapses, their sedimentary infilling sealing the marl-limestone substrate in place. The pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating shows that they were formed in an open landscape in the second Iron Age or Roman Period corroborating they were dug by man, for reasons as yet hypothetical, but certainly related the agricultural development of these areas. The pollen analysis shows significant changes of uses of these landscapes, with mainly pastures in the Gallo-Roman time, agriculture in the medieval period and forestry during the modern period. These wet depressions are now colonized by alder swamps or peat bogs. The pollen analyses identify the different phases of filling and associated vegetation that colonized these ponds since their inception. Thus, the present floristic biodiversity associated with these Mardelles result from their creation by man in antiquity, and the impact of the many changes that occurred in the surrounding landscape in the last two millennia
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David Etienne. Les mardelles intra-forestières de Lorraine : origines, archives paléo-environnementales, évolutions dynamiques et gestion conservatoire. Paléontologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10094⟩. ⟨tel-01746238⟩

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