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Élaboration et caractérisation du comportement en oxydation d'alliages composites à base de niobium et de siliciures de type M7Si6 et M8Si7 envisagés comme revêtements protecteurs

Abstract : The improvement of the efficiency of turbine engine can be achieved by increasing the working temperature. The development of new alloys based on Nb-Si system allows a jump of 200°C of the operating temperature in comparison to that offered by current nickel based alloys. The first part of this manuscript focuses on the evolutions which have led to the development of niobium silicide in situ composites (Nbss-Nb5Si3). The microstructure of these alloys consists in a ductile niobium matrix where number of alloying elements can solubilise and of strengthening niobium silicides which are intended to provide creep and oxidation resistance at high temperature. Unfortunately, these alloys exhibit a poor oxidation resistance characterised by a high metal recession rate and the formation of non-protective oxide scale. Thus, oxygen can easily react with the substrate, dissolve in Nbss and diffuse quickly through this phase. The effect of Al, Si and Ti additions on both microstructure and oxidation resistance were investigated. Although, these composition optimisations lead to a significant enhance of oxidation resistance, some compositions still suffers from catastrophic oxidation behaviour around 800°C. In these alloys tin additions involve high microstructural changes, especially by initiating the formation of A15- Nb3Sn phase. At 800°C, Sn additions suppress oxygen dissolution in Nbss responsible of the catastrophic oxidation behaviour of these alloys. Nevertheless, the oxidation resistance of these alloys remains too low for the foreseen applications and protective coatings are required. Thermodynamic stability and oxidation resistance of two silicide families (Nb3X3CrSi6 and Nb4X4Si7 (X = Fe, Co or Ni)) were investigated. These silicides have exhibited a high oxidation resistance up to 1300°C by the formation of a protective silica layer. Finally, these silicides were deposited on Nbss-Nb5Si3 substrate by using the pack cementation process. Some coated alloys have then exhibited lifetime going up to 3000 one hour cycle at 1100°C
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Stéphane Knittel. Élaboration et caractérisation du comportement en oxydation d'alliages composites à base de niobium et de siliciures de type M7Si6 et M8Si7 envisagés comme revêtements protecteurs. Autre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10127⟩. ⟨tel-01746275⟩

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