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Etude théorique et expérimentale des implants médicaux actifs en environnement électromagnétique : application aux défibrillateurs implantables en champ magnétique basse fréquence dans la bande 50Hz - 50kHz

Abstract : This thesis was conducted under a contract between the "Electronic Measurements" Research Group within the Electronic Instrumentation Laboratory of Nancy and the Research Department of EDF. The focus of this thesis is the behavior of implantable defibrillators in low frequency (50 Hz-50 kHz) magnetic environments. The first chapter introduces the principles and summarizes the basics of the interactions between electromagnetic fields and active medical implants. General and specific data concerning implantable medical devices are also presented. The main aim of the second chapter is to determine the fields and/or electric currents induced in a human body by a magnetic source at low frequency (50 Hz to 50 kHz). The calculations are based on a finite integral method elements model using CST software. In the third chapter, a virtual phantom is described, based on 77 different organs. It is constructed using the Virtual Family. Based on the above results, an implantable defibrillator is inserted into the virtual model to calculate the voltages induced at the end of the probe. These voltages are compared with threshold values obtained from the Standards to demonstrate their very low values regardless of the frequency of the magnetic field. The fourth and final chapter presents the results obtained for experimental validation with in vitro tests in an electromagnetic phantom made of gelatin, placed within a Faraday cage. A cardiac signal is generated as an artificial lure. The experimental set up is configured and managed by virtual instrumentation (GPIB HPVEE). It controls the power source and collects telemetry signals via the defibrillator. Some reversible episodes were observed at 50 Hz showing the sensitivity of the electronics (input filter) according to the ICD models destined for Europe (50 Hz) and the USA (60 Hz). These are normal values for heart rate. The series of measurements showed no failure for four defibrillators tested in electromagnetic fields up to 3.44 mT
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Juliano Katrib. Etude théorique et expérimentale des implants médicaux actifs en environnement électromagnétique : application aux défibrillateurs implantables en champ magnétique basse fréquence dans la bande 50Hz - 50kHz. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10134⟩. ⟨tel-01746278⟩

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