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Pénalisations, pseudo-inverses et peacocks dans un cadre markovien

Abstract : As suggested by the title, this thesis comprises three parts. - The first part is dedicated to the penalization of regular recurrent linear diffusions. More precisely, we start by examining null recurrent diffusions, and we exhibit a large class of functionals for which the penalization principle is satisfied. This study relies on the construction of a sigma-finite measure W similar to that of Najnudel-Roynette-Yor. We then deal with the case of the penalization of a positively recurrent diffusion (reflected on an interval) with an exponential function of its local time at 0. The results we obtain in this set-up are quite different from the null recurrent framework, and we see a new phenomena of composition of penalizations. - In the second part, we extend the notion of pseudo-inverses (a notion recently introduced by Madan-Roynette-Yor in the framework of Bessel processes) to more general diffusions. We show in particular that we may realize the family of pseudo-inverses associated to a diffusion started from 0 and taking positive values as the last passage times of another diffusion, constructed thanks to Biane's transform. - The last part of this thesis deals with peacocks, i.e. with processes which are increasing in the convex order. A theorem due to Kellerer states that to every peacock, one can associate a martingale which has the same one-dimensional marginals. Guided by this theorem, we first exhibit large families of peacocks, essentially constructed from "conditionally monotone" processes, and we then associate martingales to some of these peacocks thanks to the Skorokhod embeddings of Hall-Breiman, Bass and Azéma-Yor
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Christophe Profeta. Pénalisations, pseudo-inverses et peacocks dans un cadre markovien. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10088⟩. ⟨tel-01746354⟩

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