Plasticité moléculaire de deux écotypes de pin maritime soumis à un stress osmotique

Abstract : Among abiotic stresses, water deficit is probably the most severe limiting factor of plant growth and development. In South-Western France climatologists predict a significant increase of temperature combined with lower rainfall during the growing period for the next century. Such modifications will place forest trees in the presence of new and sudden environmental constraints. It is therefore essential to know if these organisms will be able to face such climatic changes. In other words, if plantation of improved varieties will maintain the present level of productivity with lower water availability as well as sustain severe drought episodes. The capacity of these organisms to adapt to such perturbations will depend on both their phenotypic plasticity and their genetic diversity. In the frame of this thesis, we studied molecular plasticity of maritime pine seedlings grown in hydroponics and exposed to osmotic stress using polyethylene glycol as osmoticum. A factorial design crossing two ecotypes (France & Morocco) by different levels of stress (short & long term) was used to study the transcriptomic and proteomic responses of the root system. Our investigations focused on accumulation of 7,000 transcripts and 1,200 proteins. Statistical analysis revealed differentially expressed genes according to ecotype and condition effects. More interesting was genes whose molecular plasticity was genetically controlled, revealing ecotype dependent strategy to response to the imposed stresses. The adaptive significance of these genes could be confirmed by analysing their patterns of nucleotidic diversity with the main objective of detecting molecular signature of natural selection.
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Philippe Chaumeil. Plasticité moléculaire de deux écotypes de pin maritime soumis à un stress osmotique. Sciences agricoles. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006NAN10016⟩. ⟨tel-01748169⟩

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