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Etude de la variabilité naturelle dans la réponse du peuplier aux métaux : Bases physiologiques et exploitation en phytoremédiation

Abstract : The present study beared on the capacity of poplar to be used in phytoremediation programmes. In plants, trace elements such as Zn, Fe, Cu, Co, Mn, Mo and Ni are necessary to biological processes but they also can be toxic when present at high concentrations. Other non essential elements, such as Cd and Pb also can be taken up by plants and therefore constitute a potential risk for health via accumulation into the food chain. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated microorganisms to clean up the environment. First, we have shown that poplar (Populus) species could relatively accumulate high concentrations of metals (Cd, Zn and Ni) compared to other woody plants. For instance, poplar is able to accumulate 30 times more Cd than other woody species. Second we have measured in hydroponic cultures, the potential of metal accumulation by different poplar cultivars. We found that P. trichocarpa hybrids accumulated more metals than the other hybrids. As part of the PHYTOPOP programme, we have also grown the same cultivars on two different polluted sites. Finally, by secondary ion mass spectrometry, we were able to localize Zn in poplar leaf mesophyll. The high biomass, which can also be used for energetic processes, and the heavy metals accumulation properties of poplar lead to the conclusion that poplar can constitute a good candidate for phytoremediation. The CDF (Cation Diffusion Facilitator) members are proteins involved in the transport of heavy metals. Phylogenetic analyses of the CDF family have shown that poplar contains a higher number of CDF members compared with other species. Expression levels of CDF members were studied in different tissues and in different physiological conditions. Moreover, heterologous expression in yeast has shown that PtMTP2 and PtMTP9 transport Zn and Mn respectively. Localization experiments in planta were also realized.
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Aude Migeon. Etude de la variabilité naturelle dans la réponse du peuplier aux métaux : Bases physiologiques et exploitation en phytoremédiation. Biologie végétale. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009NAN10050⟩. ⟨tel-01748401⟩

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