Peptides antimicrobiens : un lien entre l'immuno-inflammation et les facteurs de risque du syndrome métabolique et des maladies cardiovasculaires

Abstract : Multiple risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) act in a synergistic way through inflammatory pathways. Most of CVD risk factors stimulate the release of inflammatory mediators. Defensins and cathelicidins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced mainly by inflammatory cells. Beside their role in host defense, AMPs are also considered as effectors of inflammatory responses. They have been suggested to play a role in atherosclerosis. To verify this hypothesis, we studied a-defensins DEFA1-3 and cathelicidin LL-37 in a sample of the STANISLAS cohort. We demonstrated that mRNA levels of LL-37 and DEFA1-3 genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of studied subjects are significantly correlated with indicators of obesity, blood pressure, circulating triglycerides and fasting glucose levels, hypo-HDL-C, and leukocytes counts suggesting a role of these genes in CVD. Further analysis revealed that high expression of these genes might be associated with metabolic syndrome. We also showed that expression of LL-37 and DEFA1-3 genes was positively associated with that of FPR receptor gene and that the TT genotype of FPR1 c.32C>T/I11T polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased levels of soluble E-selectin suggesting that these peptides may act through this receptor and such a polymorphism may has an impact on endothelial cells function. In an in vitro model, we found that glucose and insulin modulate the expression of DEFA1-3 and CRAMP cathelicidin genes in human HL-60 neutrophils and mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes cell lines, respectively. Together, our studies demonstrated that DEFA1-3 and LL-37 could be a potential link between innate immunity and CVD and metabolic syndrome.
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Hamanou Benachour. Peptides antimicrobiens : un lien entre l'immuno-inflammation et les facteurs de risque du syndrome métabolique et des maladies cardiovasculaires. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10012⟩. ⟨tel-01748661⟩

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