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Composition organique de boues résiduaires de stations d'épuration lorraines : caractérisation moléculaire et effets de la biodégradation

Abstract : This study deals with the molecular characterisation of the organic content of sewage sludges from Lorraine (Northeast of France). The 48 samples collected come from domestic wastewater treatment plant of different capacities (rural, small urban and urban) and from depuration stations treating dairy, cheese dairy and paper-mill effluents. The first part of this study enabled to make the inventory of the compound present in sewage sludges (1) under free form (soluble organic fraction - SOF), and (ii) Iinked to the macromolecular structure (insoluble organic fraction - lOF). To achieve that, the analytical tools used were respectively GC-MS on the one hand, and THM-GC-MS and Py-GC-AED on the other hand. The results of the analysis of the SOF and lOF provide equivalent information ln that they enable the differentiation of siudges according to thelr origin (food-processing, paper-mlli or domestic). A molecular fingerprint specific to each type of sludge was thus defined. Besides, all the domestic sludges are characterised by a geochemical petroleum background which testifies to a common diffuse pollution. Moreover, a variability in this geochemical background was observed for some domestic sludges, regardless of the size of the station, or of the degree of industrialisation of the region. These variations, which are essentially observed in the SOF, can be attributed to punctual or accidental pollution in the sewer system of domestic wastewater. The eventual goal of this work ls to provide molecular parameters in order to improve the monitoring and the control of wastewater sewer systems. The second part of this project studies the effects of biodegradation on the organic content of sewage sludges. Four samples were incubated at 24°C during 140 days in order to simulate the processes of degradation. The simultaneous analysis of the SOF and lOF of the biodegraded samples enabled the determination of the great tendencies of the evolution of the organic content during the experiments. A global pattern of biodegradation reactions can thus be proposed: the chemical degradation of the macromolecular structure of the lOF produces extractable compounds which will be either degraded themselves into lower molecular weight compounds or mineralised. Besides, organic markers resistant to biodegradation couId be determined and indexes of biodegradation proposed.
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Emilie Jardé. Composition organique de boues résiduaires de stations d'épuration lorraines : caractérisation moléculaire et effets de la biodégradation. Sciences de la Terre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2002. Français. ⟨NNT : 2002NAN10288⟩. ⟨tel-01748665⟩

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