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Diagnostic de fonctionnement par analyse en composantes principales : application à une station de traitement des eaux usées

Abstract : This thesis deals with the validation of the information provided by the sensors to the control of a wastewater treatment plant. For this purpose, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach is used in order to accomplish sensor fault detection and isolation of the wastewater treatment plant. This approach is well adapted to cope with diagnosis of complex systems because no a priori theoretical model of the plant must be considered. A data matrix, obtained by taking into consideration the available measurements in normal behaviour of the wastewater treatment plant, is used in order to build a PCA model. However, two major problems must be taking into consideration when PCA is implemented: 1. Outliers appear naturally in the collection data (caused for example by faulty data, data obtained during shutdown or startup periods or data issued from different operating mode) and consequently the PCA model can seriously be affected. 2. Multiple sensor faults introduce unavoidably a combinatory explosion of the different fault scenarios to be considered. The first problem is solved by introducing a robustness degree in the PCA methodology. Among the existing robust methods proposed in the literature, the robust estimator MCD (Minimum Covariance Determinant) is the most popular. However, this method needs a large computing time on the one hand and a priori knowledge of the quantity of outliers present (generally unknown) in the data on the other hand. To avoid these difficulties, a new robust method is proposed in this thesis. Our method, namely MMRPCA (MM-estimator Robust Principal Component Analysis), is based on MM-estimators. The second mentioned problem is tackled by reducing the considered number of faults thanks to a new analysis method of the capacities of detection and isolation of the PCA model. The efficiency of the proposed methodologies is verified by considering the real wastewater treatment plant data
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01748708
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Yvon Tharrault. Diagnostic de fonctionnement par analyse en composantes principales : application à une station de traitement des eaux usées. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008INPL105N⟩. ⟨tel-01748708⟩

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