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Evaluation des sources d'espèces et des déterminants de la diversité végétale des parcelles agricoles : interchamps, stock semencier, pratiques agricoles et paysage de l'Installation Expérimentale Inra ASTER Mirecourt

Abstract : One of the means to offset the decrease of pesticide use is to favour agro-ecological services of plant diversity. In this aim, farmer will have to adapt its farming management. My work partly answers to the following applied objective: to bring to the farmer some advices for the management of plant diversity on the farm territory. I have two scientific objectives: i) to verify if field boundaries and soil seed bank are potential sources of plant species for field centres; ii) to quantify the relative influence of dynamics of two factor groups, characterized as field paths, on plant diversity: farming practices and characteristics of landscape mosaïc.I have carried out this study on the experimental farm of INRA ASTER Mirecourt. Its farming systems (mixed crop-dairy systems) have been converted to organic farming since 2004. I have characterized vegetation - established vegetation in field boundaries and in field centres, and vegetation in the soil seed bank - of permanent grasslands and arable fields with complementary approaches: taxonomical approach based on the species, and functional approach based on seven functional properties about dispersal, establishment and persistence of plant species. I have characterized field paths, along nine years, either from farming practices set up on field, either from annual characteristics of landscape mosaïc. I have represented this landscape mosaïc as a mosaïc of distinct land-uses. All of them and their spatialization have been determined from farmer surveys or landscape observations.My results show that soil seed bank and field bboundaries are not potential sources of plant species for field centres, in both permanent grasslands and arable fields. On the other hand, they are efficient refuges for a large part of grassland species. According to my results, I hypothesize that field boudaries are species sinks in arable fields. I also highlight that functional gradient of grassland vegetation in the field edge, between field margins and field centres, is spread until 2 m only.Finally, plant diversity in studied fields is mainly influenced by field path according landscape mosaïc and by farming practices set up the same year of vegetation sampling. Soil characteristics have a minor influence. These three groups of influent factors explain more than 75 % of the functional composition variability of the vegetation in field centres.The management of plant diversity in agricultural fields of a given farm can be partly reach by the farmer. However, according to the effects of field paths about landscape mosaïc, it is necessary to set up a collective management of plant diversity with all actors sharing the studied territory
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Etienne Gaujour. Evaluation des sources d'espèces et des déterminants de la diversité végétale des parcelles agricoles : interchamps, stock semencier, pratiques agricoles et paysage de l'Installation Expérimentale Inra ASTER Mirecourt. Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010INPL020N⟩. ⟨tel-01748826⟩

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