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Transport et stockage des dérivés pétroliers : problématique d'endommagement des pipes par érosion de sable et par hydrogène

Abstract : In this thesis, we have treated the local damage of pipes, with API 5L X52 steel, by impact of sand and hydrogen. The erosion occurs by the projection of corundum (Al2O3), with an average grain size between 300 and 400?m. The variables are the sanding time (between 1 and 8 hours) and the specimen notch radius (0.25 to 1 mm). The effect of erosion is characterized by: mass loss, eroded volume, evolution of notch parameters, residual stress analysis and microhardness HV. We noticed that longer the sanding time and larger the notch radius, more significant is the damage. Residual stresses introduced by sandblasting play an important role on the material resistance. The second part concerns the damage of pipes by the presence of hydrogen. Tests were carried out at a constant potential of -1Vsce, and in a standard electrolytic solution: NS4 (Natural Soil 4). The quantity and the concentration of absorbed hydrogen were evaluated. By performing different mechanical tests: Tensile, Charpy and fatigue, we determined the influence of sandblasting and hydrogen on the mechanical properties of pipes. The results indicate that the sandblasting improves the elongation at fracture and the lifetime of pipe, but on the other side, hydrogen reduces them because "he" penetrates into the steel and changes the failure mechanism. The evolution of material microstructure and fracture mode were observed by scanning electron microscope. The decrease in steel grains size, at the sandblasted notch tip, is a sign of large plastic deformation. The cracks in steel, charged with hydrogen, propagate along the porosity path. Finally, the harmfulness of notch, under sandblasting and hydrogen, was studied by the Modified Failure Assessment Diagram. We have shown that the notch with a depth of 20% of the pipe thickness isn?t dangerous, but the brittleness caused by the presence of hydrogen reduces the safety and security factors about 7%
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Akram Alhussein. Transport et stockage des dérivés pétroliers : problématique d'endommagement des pipes par érosion de sable et par hydrogène. Autre. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010METZ034S⟩. ⟨tel-01748926⟩

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