Conception de fonctionnalités d'assistance robotisée à la mobilité sous contrainte d'acceptabilité et d'adaptabilité

Abstract : The Smart Wheelchairs, that are equipped for autonomous navigation functionalities, aim to relieve people with disabilities who have difficulty to drive a standard electric wheelchair. Since the 80s, many studies have been conducted to design such prototypes but very few have led to real progress for users and only for simple functionalities. This can be explained by several factors, including the underestimation of the constraints of acceptability and adaptability. In this context, our goal is to provide a driving assistance in respect of these constraints. For this, we design a lightweight system, consisting of three laser sensors, a camera and a computer. It is adaptable to any type of electric wheelchair and allowed us to develop the functionalities of passing through of the narrow passages and wall following, as well as an ergonomic human-machine interface. This latter is established by a deictic command which consists in to provide an overview of the environment where the user indicates the chosen autonomous task by his application location, and then the wheelchair performs the corresponding action automatically. Moreover, all contact with the joystick gives back the control to the user so that he does not feel a prisoner of assistance; well the driving is composed of alternating manual controls and indications on the interface. Finally, the evaluation of our assistance in the conduct took place in three stages. The first, qualitative, is to present and to do try the system to potential users. In a second step, we compare quantitatively the performance of the assistance driving with those of a manual driving on a panel of valid persons (travel time, number of actions, discomfort index?). The third step is to assess the cognitive load of users in both driving modes by measuring the attentional load and decision-making capacity from a dual task method
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Frédéric Leishman. Conception de fonctionnalités d'assistance robotisée à la mobilité sous contrainte d'acceptabilité et d'adaptabilité. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0039⟩. ⟨tel-01749208⟩

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