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Exposition périnatale à un mélange d'Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques chez le rat : évaluation des effets neurotoxiques à court et à long terme

Abstract : compounds in the environment to which human is exposed mainly through ingestion of contaminated food. PAHs are known since the 1990s as being neurotoxic both in humans and in animals. PAH transfer between mother and fetus through the placenta, and the presence of these compounds in breast milk have been shown, thus raising the question of risk exposure occurring during early stages of development of the individual. Because this risk was only partially studied, the thesis presented in this manuscript was designed to assess the short-term and long-term toxicity for the developing nervous system, of a mixture of 16 PAHs ingested by the pregnant and / or breastfeeding rat. PAHs were administered via a contaminated food at two doses, 2 and 200 µg/kg /day dose. The lowest one corresponds to the levels of environmental contamination via the mother's diet during gestation and/or lactation. The results show that perinatal exposure to the mixture of PAHs did not induce short-term effects on neuromotor and sensory development on pups. In contrast, a long-term increase in activity and anxiety levels was observed in the exposed animals. In addition, changes in cerebral energy metabolism, as assessed by the enzymatic activity of cytochrome oxidase on brain sections taken at different ages were observed, particularly in the limbic system. Measures of the concentrations of PAHs in the pup brain compartment showed the presence of all the parent compounds, including control animals, suggesting the existence of an environmental noise significant. Finally, several factors modulate PAH toxicity, including the exposure period, and the administration of a mixture instead of a single molecule. In conclusion, this work has highlighted, in rats, delayed neurotoxicity due to early exposure to a mixture of 16 PAHs, which raises the question of risk to humans, and in particular for the individual developing exposure to such compounds
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  • HAL Id : tel-01749414, version 1

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Guillemette Crépeaux. Exposition périnatale à un mélange d'Hydrocarbures Aromatiques Polycycliques chez le rat : évaluation des effets neurotoxiques à court et à long terme. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0198⟩. ⟨tel-01749414⟩

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