Étude expérimentale et modélisation de la décomposition thermique d'oxalates d'actinides en oxydes

Abstract : Mixed uranium-plutonium oxides are preferential raw materials for news generation nuclear fuels. The research project presented herein deals with their elaboration process by thermal decomposition of mixed oxalates, as reference precursors, in order to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the resulting product. The thermal decomposition of several oxalate precursors into oxides was thus experimentally studied under both inert and oxidizing atmospheres, the reaction mechanisms were determined, as well as the thermodynamics and kinetics, and predictive physicochemical models were proposed. The methodology of the study up to the modelling was first developed using lanthanide model compounds with increasing complexity. The conversion into oxides of simple Nd and Ce oxalates, compared with Pu(III) oxalate, allowed to understand the role of the metal cation redox properties. Double lanthanide-hydrazinium oxalates, displaying a specific behaviour due to their peculiar crystallographic structure, underlined the importance of gas-gas and solid-gas interactions. Then, the global resolution of the decomposition mechanisms of mixed actinide oxalates into oxides was carried out through a comparative approach of U-Ce, Th-Pu and U-Pu systems, given ... analogies. A general mechanism including five main steps was proposed, with the corresponding thermodynamic and kinetic parameters. This especially enabled to simulate the speciation diagrams of the solid phases according to different temperature programs (linear or double industrial oven) for the U-Ce surrogate system (used in systematic technological process optimisation tests) as well as for the U-Pu system of interest. Finally, a first attempt at process modelling was undertaken, taking into account transport phenomena associated with two key-reactions for these systems: the thermal decomposition of anhydrous oxalate into oxide and the Boudouard equilibrium between carbonaceous species. The overall system reactivity and the predominant phenomena concerning evolved gas fluxes and elemental carbon formation, within a static powder bed, were simulated
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Lucie de Almeida. Étude expérimentale et modélisation de la décomposition thermique d'oxalates d'actinides en oxydes. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0356⟩. ⟨tel-01749485⟩

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