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Étude des relations entre croissance, concentrations en métabolites primaires et secondaires et disponibilité en ressources chez la tomate avec ou sans bioagresseurs

Abstract : Nowadays, limiting the use of pesticides is mandatory. A promising way for research deals with the environmental determinism of plant defence mechanisms, among others, production of secondary metabolites. The aim of my PhD work was to study the trade-off between growth and defence (primary vs. secondary metabolism) in healthy plant tissues or attacked by different pests, under different conditions of resources availabilities. We measured different growth parameters, C:N ratios of tissue, concentrations of main primary metabolites (simple carbohydrates, starch) and defence metabolites (chlorogenic acid, rutin, kaempferol-rutinoside and tomatine) on healthy or attacked tomato plant grown in hydroponic culture in greenhouse or phytotron. We observed that variations of total and resources C:N ratios were positively correlated to that of several defence compounds whatever their composition in carbon and nitrogen. Moreover, we showed that, during pests attack, concentrations of primary and secondary metabolites did not follow the same evolution, depending on their nature. Caffeoyl putrescine synthesis was strongly induced by P. syringae inoculation whereas chlorogenic acid concentration decreased. Inoculation of P. syringae induced a strong decrease of concentration of glucose and fructose whereas inoculation of P. corrugata enhanced their synthesis. We observed that a low N availability alters the development of P. syringae, P. corrugata and Tuta absoluta but promotes the development of B. cinerea. Our results showed that C:N ratio is a reliable indicator of the trade-off between growth and defence in the case of healthy plant. In attacked plant, the resources allocation between different metabolites varies with pests. And each pests reacts specifically to changes of N availability for the plant. Control of culture conditions appears to be a relevant agronomic tool to monitor the control of pests even if it is difficult to apply general rules to the interaction plant/environment/pests
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  • HAL Id : tel-01749584, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 320421

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Mathilde Royer. Étude des relations entre croissance, concentrations en métabolites primaires et secondaires et disponibilité en ressources chez la tomate avec ou sans bioagresseurs. Agronomie. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0058⟩. ⟨tel-01749584⟩

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