Développement d'une batterie de mesures biologiques pour l'évaluation du risque associé aux sédiments contaminés

Abstract : The ecological, regulatory and economic stakes impose to propose reliable methodologies to assess the risk of contaminated sediments for the environment, following a gradual approach (which allows to rank and to proportion efforts), considering the potential risks on the ecosystems. This work aims to develop a biological tool for the hazard assessment of contaminated freshwaters sediments. It consists in the evaluation of natural sediments toxicity contaminated by chemicals pollutants, through the measurement of biological disturbances caused to laboratory exposed organisms. Thus, a bioassay battery composed of three species (G. fossarum crustacean arthropod; P. antipodarum gastropod mollusc and C. riparius insect arthropod), belonging to different phyla, was built. The battery was developed within two main steps. The first concerns the evaluation of the natural variability of organisms life-traits exposed to a good quality (not or few contaminated) sediment series, which present a range of particle size grading and organic matter content as large as possible. The second step consists in a comparison between life-traits responses in contaminated conditions and the range of responses previously obtained in control conditions. Thus, the battery capacity to discriminate was assessed on contaminated sediment for each endpoint for the three tested species. Results show some traits with a high discriminating power (e.g. G. fossarum feeding rate) and on the contrary some traits with a very low discriminating power (e.g. P. antipodarum embryo production). Intermediates responses are treated separately. Actually, it can present median sensitivity to contaminants or specific sensitivities (e.g. C. riparius growth rate responded only to pesticides contaminations). Results allow to obtain biological response thresholds for each endpoint of the three tested species, and recommendations for the use of developed tests (which species / traits to use in which conditions?)
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Cyrielle Durand. Développement d'une batterie de mesures biologiques pour l'évaluation du risque associé aux sédiments contaminés. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0387⟩. ⟨tel-01749593⟩

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