Pétrologie, géochimie et genèse des gisements de tsavorite associés aux gneiss et roches calco-silicatées graphiteux de Lemshuku et Namalulu, Tanzanie

Abstract : Tsavorite, a (V, Cr, Mn)-bearing green grossular, is hosted by graphitic gneisses or calc-silicates, often asssociated with dolomitic marbles, and belonging to the Metamorphic Neoproterozoic Mozambique Belt. Tsavorite is found either as nodules or in quartz veins (primary deposits), or in placers (secondary deposits). The mineralogical study of tsavorites suggests a new protocol to certificate their geographical origin, based on the V/Cr ratio, Mn content and delta18O. The study of the Lemshuku and Namalulu deposits in Tanzania has shown that the metamorphism of organic matter-rich and evaporites-rich sedimentary protoliths occurred at P = 7.0 ± 0.4 kbar and T = 677 ± 14°C, at 634 ± 22 Ma (U-Th-Pb dating on monazite). The metamorphic series cooled down at around 500 Ma (40Ar-39Ar dating on muscovite). Two metasomatic stages are linked to the formation of tsavorite : (i) diffusion metasomatism forming nodules at P = 5.0-7.4 kbar and T = 580-691°C; (ii) calcitic infiltration metasomatism forming quartz veins at P = 3.6-4.9 kbar and T = 505-587°C. These last have been dated in situ with Sm-Nd dating at 606 ± 36 Ma. Continental evaporites, deposited in a coastal marine sabkha with (Si, Ca)-bearing sediments, transformed into tsavorite in the case of the nodules, while the molten salts are associated with the formation of the quartz veins. The mineralisations are controlled by lithostratigraphy and structure
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Julien Feneyrol. Pétrologie, géochimie et genèse des gisements de tsavorite associés aux gneiss et roches calco-silicatées graphiteux de Lemshuku et Namalulu, Tanzanie. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0348⟩. ⟨tel-01750042⟩

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