Rôle de la salinité dans la dynamique et la régulation de la biodiversité des communautés de macroinvertébrés dulçaquicoles

Abstract : One of the consequences of the climat changes and rising temperatures on continental aquatic environments will be an increase their salinity levels. This salinization process is due to multiple factors such as an increase of evaporation, a rise of the sea level and the subterranean aquifers or a change of land use and erosonial process of drainage basins. In spite of its importance, the role of the salinity in freshwater ecosystems is poorly known, in particular in temperate ecosystems. The main objective of this sudy is to improve our knowledge of the role and consequences of a rising salinity on the freshwater biota. A particular section of the Meurthe River allowed us to study on the field the role played by the salinity in the regulation of biodiversity of the macroinvertebrate community. This section of 19 Km presents a salinity gradient ranging from 0.21 to 2.60 g.L-1. The first part of this study document our knowledge on the change of macroinvertebrate communities along a salinity gradient in term of biodiversity and structure but also in terms of bio/ecological characteristics of macroinvertebrate assemblages. In the second part, the study is focused on the populationnal and individual scales to explain the observed changes in community scale, especially by using some laboratory tests of the salinity tolerance of 60 taxa belonging to all faunistic groups. From a practical point of view, we explored several bioassessment tools adapted to the study of salinization process such as the bused of sentinel substrate and artificial substrates. Some inovative investigations have also been realized on the use of fluctuating asymmetry to highlight developmental instabilities in natural population submitted to a salinity stress.
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Christophe Piscart. Rôle de la salinité dans la dynamique et la régulation de la biodiversité des communautés de macroinvertébrés dulçaquicoles. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2004. Français. ⟨NNT : 2004METZ027S⟩. ⟨tel-01750065⟩

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