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Influence des fluides sur la diagénèse d'enfouissement des réservoirs carbonatés très enfouis: étude expérimentale sous contraintes

Abstract : The preservation of good petrophysical properties (high porosity / high permeability) at great depth in carbonate rocks may lead to the existence of a deeply buried reservoir (DBR), a target of interest for the oil industry. However, chemo-mechanical processes involved in the burial diagenesis of carbonate petroleum reservoirs are still poorly understood or restrained and few experimental results exists in this domain. To better understand these processes and explain how porosity and permeability can be preserved at the great depth of DBR (burial > 4000m), we developed an innovative experimental device and an associated protocol. This device allows both the simulation of high pressure/stresses/temperature conditions (80°C, 60 MPa of confining pressure and differential stress up to 40 MPa) of DBR and the circulation of different fluids in rock samples. Through a multidisciplinary approach we tested core samples of a cemented bioclastic limestone (Massangis limestone) and we analyzed creep deformations, chemistry of pore fluids, petrographical and petrophysical properties of samples. It has been demonstrated that there exists an important relationship between the mechanical stress affecting the rock, the thermodynamic of water/rock interactions and the evolution of the petrophysical properties. The main process responsible for creep deformation of carbonated rocks during burial has been determined to be Intergranular Pressure Solution (IPS) resulting in Pressure Solution Creep (PSC) which is the main process implied in the porosity reduction of a carbonate rock during deep burial. Different flow conditions (no-flow and flow-through) and chemical compositions (natural meteoric water, adjunction of phosphate ions, brine) were considered. The effects of hydrocarbon and of their timing of set-up have also been investigated. It has been discovered from our study that, in presence of meteoric fluid, PSC happens at the micritic scale, and results in the blocking of microporosity between micrites crystals due to the precipitation of calcite on free pore walls of micrites. The preservation of macropores allows the preservation of permeability. The adjunction of phosphate ions in the circulating fluid results in the inhibition of PSC while the increase of salinity by addition of NaCl leads to its acceleration. An early injection of oil prior to water circulation causes the inhibition of PSC by the coating of the grains, leading to the preservation of porosity. The dataset obtained from this study show the importance of fluid chemistry and of the timing of oil charging in a reservoir in the preservation of early porosity at great depth
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Lucille Neveux. Influence des fluides sur la diagénèse d'enfouissement des réservoirs carbonatés très enfouis: étude expérimentale sous contraintes. Sciences de la Terre. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0298⟩. ⟨tel-01750651⟩

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